The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights – The Basic Principles
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a multilateral treaty that defines the rights of all people. It was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966, and entered into force on 23 March 1976. The treaty is governed by Article 49, which lays down provisions for international treaties. It protects human rights and freedoms in a wide range of situations. Here are some of the major provisions covered by this treaty.
The International Covenant guarantees that States Parties to the Covenant shall take appropriate measures to ensure the equality of rights and responsibilities of spouses, both during marriage and after dissolution. It requires that States Parties implement their obligations under the Covenant in good faith. The full realization of the rights should be progressive, and certain rights may be applicable immediately, while others may take a longer time to apply. The application of the UNCRC requires that States Parties consider the needs of all people.
Article 3 calls for the protection of non-nationals. The Covenant also requires that States Parties respect the rights and dignity of indigenous peoples. This principle is often overlooked, and the right to self-determination is a fundamental right that no one should be denied. This is a major point of contention for human rights activists, and one that must be heeded. If you’re a foreigner in another country, don’t take for granted that you have the right to enter their country and stay there.
Reports are mandatory and must be submitted every five years. The initial report is due a year after ratification and periodic reports must be submitted annually. The Economic and Social Council will establish a programme within a year of the Covenant’s entry into force. If a State is violating the Covenant, it’s imperative to report to the Human Rights Council to ensure it complies. It is essential to report on the status of human rights in a way that satisfies its obligations under the Covenant.
States that are signatories to the Covenant must eliminate de jure discrimination. That means that they must remove discriminatory laws and regulations that harm human rights. The only exceptions to this requirement are those that prevent the enjoyment of a person’s rights by other people. In addition, the Covenant requires that countries ensure that they do not discriminate. As a result, a country that has a history of discrimination must comply with the Covenant to be able to sign the treaty.
The international covenant imposes obligations on States that do not comply with the requirements of the treaty. However, there are certain exceptions to this rule, including those in the context of economic and social rights. The right to self-determination is an essential element of the Charter of the United Nations. By observing the Covenant, states are required to provide support to refugees and asylum seekers in their country. This is especially important for refugee communities, which are in desperate need of assistance.